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?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ?????. ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????.

????, ????, ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????, ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????. ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ????? ?????? ???? (???? ???? ????? 1994).

???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????. ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????, ?? ???? ????? ????? ???, ?????? ?????? ????? ????, ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? (??? ?????? 1992).
?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ???? ??????? ????? ??????, ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????. ??, ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ?? ????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????, ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????.
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?? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????, ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? (???? ?????, 1977). ????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????. ???? ???? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????, ??? ?????.

??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????. ??? ?? ???, ???? ???, ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????? ????. ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???????, ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? (??? ????? 2005 ). ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????, ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????.

??? ????? ???? ???, ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ‘??????,’ ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????. ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??? 5 ?? 8 ?????? ??????? ???? ?????. ????? ???, ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (??? 2001). ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ????, ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????. ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???. ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??????. ?? ????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ????, ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????.
??????
???, ????, 2001, ????? ?????, ????? ????? ????????? 1943-1954, ?? ????, ?? ????
Cohen, Y., with Levy, J., 1998, Women in the Moroccan Jewish Community in Montreal, in Silberstein Swartz S. and Wolfe M., From Memory to Transformation: Jewish Women’s Voices, Second Story Press, Toronto
Berdugo, M., Cohen, Y., with Levy, J., 1987, Juifs Marocains a Montreal: Temoignages d’ une immigration Moderne, Editions VLB, Montreal

Dinelle, J. and Barette-Dalphond A.. 1994, Femmes et Judaismes: les femmes immigrants sepharades a Montreal, master thesis, UQAM, Montreal

Levy, J., and Samson J., M., 1992, Acculturation, Religiosity and Tradition among French Speaking Jews in Montreal, in Fishbane S., et al., eds., Essays in the Social Scientific Study of Judaism and Jewish Society, Vol. II, Ktav Publishing, New York

Imbar, M., and Adler C., 1977, Ethnic integration in Israel: a comparative case study of Moroccan brothers who settled in France and in Israel ,New Brunswick Publishers, N.J.
Peled Y. and Shafir G. 2005 Being Israeli, The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship
Tel Aviv University Press (Hebrew)

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