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2014

????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? 638 ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????. ??? ?????, ????? ????? ?????, ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???????. ???, ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??, ????? ????????, ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???????, ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???.

??? ????? ??????, ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?? ????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????. ?????? ??, ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???, ???? ??????, ???? ?????, ????? ?? ??? ???????, ???????? ?? ‘??????’ ????? ????????? ?????.

????? ???? (882-942), ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????, ?????? ????? ???”? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????: ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????, ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????.

????? ????? ?????? ????, ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? (1038), ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????. ????? ??? ?????, ?????? ????? ????, ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ????, ?? ???? ????? ??????.

??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????, ??????? ???????? (??? ???????) ???? ?? ?????? ????, ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????. ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????.

??? ???? ???? ??? (???”? 1103-1013 ) ?? ??? ?????, ?? ????? ??, ??? ?????, ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????, ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????. ?????? ???”? ??? ?????? ?? ????”? (1204-1138) ?????? (????) ?????? ??? (?????). ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???”?, ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????”?, ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????.

??????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????. ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????. ?? ???, ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????, ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????. ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????, ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????, ??? ???? ?????, ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ???? ??????.

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